Sinusitis is the medical term for sinusitis. Every 7th person in Germany has sinusitis once a year – often as the remnant of a cold. More about symptoms, causes, and therapy of sinusitis.

Definition

Sinusitis is the technical term for sinusitis. Sinusitis can be acute or chronic. Depending on the inflamed sinus there are:

  • Sinusitis frontalis: inflammation of the frontal sinuses (right and left above the root of the nose above the eyebrows)
  • Maxillary sinusitis: inflammation of the maxillary sinuses (right and left of the nose)
  • Ethomid sinusitis: inflammation of the ethmoid labyrinth (between the nose and the inner corner of the eye)
  • Sphenoidal sinusitis: Inflammation of the sphenoid sinus (right and left behind the ethmoidal cells).

Complications arise when sinusitis spreads to neighboring structures, such as the meninges, the brain, and the ears and eye sockets. Then there are sometimes dangerous suppurations with meningitis, seizures, visual impairment, and middle ear infections.

Symptoms

Typical symptoms of acute sinusitis are a headache and a feeling of pressure on the face – depending on the affected cavity in the forehead, jaw and nose area and around the eyes. The feeling of pressure often increases during bending, sneezing and coughing as well as during shaking. Sometimes the sense of smell and nasal breathing are limited.

In some patients, the nose feels “closed” – as if blocked. Sometimes the nasal secretion also runs down the throat permanently. Fever and fatigue, as well as flu symptoms, are also possible. The symptoms can be unilateral or bilateral.

Usually, sinusitis heals after a few weeks (maximum of eight weeks). If they continue to exist or are more likely to have sinusitis (more than four times a year), physicians speak of chronic sinusitis.

symptoms-of-chronic-sinusitis

 

Symptoms Of Chronic Sinusitis

Chronic sinusitis often results from unhealed acute sinusitis. The symptoms are much weaker than with acute sinusitis. Chronic sinusitis is characterized by a long-lasting odor loss and permanent, dull pressure on the face. Inflammatory polyps often grow in the paranasal sinuses. Endoscopically, often only a slight swelling of the nasal mucosa and a thin, clear secretion in chronic sinusitis are recognizable.

Causes

Sinusitis is often preceded by a cold. It is increasingly produced nasal mucus and the mucous membranes swell. Sometimes the small passages between nose and paranasal sinuses swell. If they are completely blocked, the paranasal sinuses are no longer ventilated, the secretion can not drain and jams back. This warm, moist environment is an ideal breeding ground for germs such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi.

Viral sinusitis is often the result of bacterial colonization with influenza, parainfluenza or rhinoviruses. In bacterial sinusitis Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococci, staphylococci, and streptococci are often the trigger. Even fungi can cause sinusitis.

Non-Infectious Causes Of Sinusitis

Ventilation disorders of the paranasal sinuses and thus a disturbed discharge of secretion may also have non-infectious causes. These are, for example, anatomical features such as nasal polyps (benign mucosal growths), a curved nasal septum (so-called septal deviation), large nasal concha, cystic fibrosis or even tumors.

Sinusitis can also occur as part of allergic disease (such as hay fever or house dust allergy). Furthermore, there is the so-called dentogenic, so dental-related, sinusitis. This pathogens, for example, after dental procedures, tooth root inflammation or sinus fistulas reach the paranasal sinuses.

A special form of the sinusitis is the Samter syndrome (also analgesic intolerance syndrome). Sinusitis occurs simultaneously with intolerance to acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA), bronchial asthma and nasal polyps.

Investigation

As a rule, the doctor already diagnoses sinusitis based on the typical symptoms. As a backup, he taps and presses certain areas of the face and inspects the mouth, throat, and throat. Occasionally blood and secretion examinations, allergy tests and imaging procedures (such as nasal reflection, X-ray and computed tomography) are used.

Treatment

Usually, the doctor will recommend decongestant nasal drops with drugs such as naphazoline, oxymetazoline, tramazoline, and xylometazoline. However, these should not be applied too long and absolutely according to the regulations. Sometimes, the medical treatment of sinusitis also includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and piroxicam or glucocorticoids (cortisone preparations).

In purulent sinusitis, antibiotics (especially tetracyclines and cephalosporins) are the drugs of choice.

Short and microwave radiation can help cure sinusitis.

In some cases, such as anatomical features, nasal polyps, or nasal septum curvatures, surgery can help.

Home Remedies For Sinusitis

Home remedies for sinusitis support drug therapy and help to relieve the symptoms. The most important home remedy is an adequate supply of fluid. At least 2 liters should be consumed daily. So you liquefy tough secretions, which diluted can drain more easily. You can support the secretion drainage with humid room air as well as steam baths with herbal additives. Anis, chamomile flowers, myrtol, primrose root, thyme herb, and eucalyptus oil are particularly suitable.

No Steam Baths And Essential Oils In Infants And Toddlers

Caution: Infants and toddlers should not use steam baths due to the risk of scalding and, above all, should not use any menthol-containing substances or strong-smelling essential oils. Red light and warmth are better in this age group. Warm linseed or cherry stone pillows on the forehead are often perceived as beneficial.

Other Home Remedies For Adults

  • inhale salt or sea salt with Emser or absorb the saline liquid with the nostril or rinse your nose
  • heat rising footbaths with salt water (start with about 34 degrees warm water and increase to 41 degrees)
  • eat a teaspoon of fresh horseradish three times a day or drink horseradish juice
  • Place horseradish and lemon toppings on forehead or quark toppings on forehead and cheeks
  • Warm potato wraps on forehead and nose several times a day
  • Fix the garlic and lemon slices under the soles of the feet with warm wool socks
  • Herbal teas distributed throughout the day (such as anise, fennel, and thyme)
  • put a bowl of shredded onion on the bedside table
  • Eat chicken soup for attacks of influenza-like infections.

Homeopathy In Sinusitis

For sinusitis the following homeopathic remedies are recommended:

  • Cinnabaris: with oppressive pain at the root of the nose, radiation to the eye, severe pressure pain when stopping
  • Hepar sulfuris: in cold and touch-sensitive patients, complaints worsen by drafts
  • Hydrastis Canadensis: large amount of secretions, headache over the left eye, complaints worsen in the warm room
  • Potassium biochromicum: with thick yellow-green secretions, pressure at the root of the nose, mucus flow in the throat
  • Luffa operculata: in frontal headache, dry and sensitive nasal mucous membranes and crusts in the nose
  • Mercurius solubilis: with purulent nasal secretions, bad breath, and covered tongue, complaints worsen by warmth of the bed.

Prevention

To prevent sinusitis, you should avoid colds, sleep well, strengthen your immune system, not smoke, maintain a balanced and fresh diet, move a lot and strive for normal weight.

Watch out for proper whining. It works like this:

  • Under no circumstances trumpet with pressure in the handkerchief. So you squeeze the nasal mucus back into the sinuses. Better careful and with little pressure.
  • Give in to sneezing and do not suppress it

Even if it does not belong: preferably “pull up nose”, the secretion is transported into the throat and swallowed.

 

  1. Arginine

Arginine is an important amino acid that keeps the cells of the intestinal mucosa healthy. A healthy intestinal mucosa is indispensable for a functioning immune defense. In addition, arginine stimulates the thymus gland, which sits behind the breastbone and forms important cells for the immune system, whereby the defense cells are increased and activated. In addition, arginine is also the most important precursor of nitric oxide (NO) in the human body.

Lack of NO often leads to cardiovascular disease. Arginine protects blood vessels by relaxing blood vessels, improving blood circulation, normalizing blood pressure, and counteracting the formation of blood clots. Studies have shown that the formation of NO can be increased by the supply of arginine and thus the vessels are kept healthy. In addition to this positive effect on the cardiovascular system, arginine has other beneficial effects.1 It has a positive effect on wound healing and the formation of collagen.2 Collagen is an important component of skin, bones, tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, and blood vessels teeth.

Amino-Acids-and-Their-Importance-to-The-Immune-System

  1. Glutamine

Glutamine is an amino acid that the body needs for the formation of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cells that are responsible for the production of antibodies and thus represent an important part of the immune system. Glutamine is predominantly in the muscle cells. During physical activity, muscle consumes glucose and glutamine. These two substances are then missing the immune system. A weakened immune system can be caused, among other things by a glutamine and glucose deficiency. Recent studies suggest that glutamine is indispensable for the metabolism as well as the structure and function of the intestine.

  1. Glycine

Glycine is the smallest amino acid in the human body and involved in the production of antibodies. Glycine prevents premature cell death. In addition, it is involved in the production of antibodies and therefore very important for a healthy immune system. Together with cysteine ​​and glutamic acid, it forms an antioxidant (radical scavenger). Antioxidants relieve inflammatory processes in the body.4

  1. Cysteine

Cysteine ​​affects the immune system because it supports the maturation of lymphocytes, activates cells that are needed for the immune defense and play a role in the formation of an important antioxidant in the liver.

  1. Folic Acid

Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin that is present in foods as folate. 80 to 90% of people in Germany consume less folic acid than recommended. Folic acid is particularly important for women who want to have children and pregnant women because it reduces the risk of miscarriage and can prevent malformations. Folic acid is also important for all people because it participates in cell division, especially in the bone marrow and digestive tract. In addition, folic acid prevents homocysteinemia. Homocysteinemia means that there are too many cell toxins in the blood, which is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  1. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

The term vitamin B6 summarizes several substances that are similar in structure. Vitamin B6 is involved in about 100 enzyme reactions. The reactions are almost all related to the metabolism of the amino acids (protein building blocks). Vitamin B6 is also essential for nerve and brain metabolism and supports the immune system’s defenses.

  1. Cobalamin (vitamin B12)

Vitamin B12 plays a very important role in the whole metabolism and in almost all metabolic processes. It is important as a co-factor of enzymes in the mitochondria (“power plants” of the cells), is important in the defense against infection and for the function of the nervous system.

  1. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant (radical scavenger), i. H. it prevents the oxidation of important molecules. In addition, vitamin C has many important properties that are good for your health. Mainly, vitamin C is involved in the defense against viruses and bacteria by mainly accumulating in the leukocytes (white blood cells) and supports activated T cells (white blood cell group that promotes the immune system).

  1. Calcium

Calcium is a mineral that is involved in many important processes in the body. It stabilizes and strengthens bones and teeth. Calcium is also very important for the nerves and muscles as it controls the tension and irritation. Calcium also plays an important role in blood clotting and cells.

  1. Zinc

Zinc is an indispensable (essential) trace element. It is part of many enzymes and is important for sugar, fat and protein metabolism. In addition, it is involved in the structure of the genetic material and cell growth. Zinc is needed for many important processes in the body, such as growth, regeneration and the immune system. Zinc cannot be stored in the body and therefore needs to be applied daily. Zinc deficiency can be manifested by brittle nails, a weak immune system, anemia and growth disorders. 

  1. Selenium

Selenium is also an indispensable (essential) trace element. It plays an important role as a radical scavenger and is involved in the growth processes of almost all cells of the body. It forms antibodies and is therefore important for the immune defense. Selenium is also involved in various metabolic processes. Various studies have shown that the use of selenium reduces the risk of lung, prostate and colon cancer.