For decades, the dispute has raged over whether butter or margarine is healthier.

Almost six kilos of margarine has statistically eaten every German citizen last year. Since the first margarine of beef tallow and skimmed milk was blended together in 1869, margarine has become a tasty spread with health claims. Nowadays, margarine is usually made from vegetable oils which harden or harden at room temperature. Another chemical process to obtain solid fats from oils is transesterification.

Margarine is a fat blend of vegetable solid or hydrogenated fats, the proportion of which must be at least 80 percent. In addition, margarine contains water or skimmed milk. So that the fat connects with the water usually the emulsifier sojalecitin is added. The aroma is enhanced by acidulants, lactic acid, citric acid, sour whey or yogurt cultures. The yellowish color of margarine usually comes from the added beta-carotene. In the case of semi-fat margarine, sorbic acid is frequently used in addition as a preservative. The addition of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, and E are also widespread in order to achieve the nutritional value of butter.

Margarine contains only small amounts of saturated fatty acids, but possibly trans fatty acids. In a test by Stiftung Warentest in 2002, only 6 out of 40 margarines contained unwanted trans fatty acids. Through new manufacturing processes, the manufacturers have managed to prevent the emergence of this critical substance.

Depending on the composition of the oils used in the preparation, margarine may contain many monounsaturated fatty acids. In particular, the olive oil-containing products contain many monounsaturated fatty acids.

Margarine is a high-tech product. Usually natural or nature-identical aromas, often also lactic and citric acid, provide a butter-like or other pleasant taste. Neuform or Biomargarine is usually processed less. These types of margarine are usually based on palm kernel, palm or coconut fat, since when using these solid fats can be dispensed with a cure. These fats are very rich in saturated fat. All organic margarine received in the test of the Stiftung Warentest bad grades. The testers preferred conventional products. Organic margarine tasted satisfying at best.


Margarine is usually quite rich in vitamins. Vitamin E occurs in many vegetable oils. Many margarine manufacturers artificially add vitamin A, D and vitamin E to their product. Vitamin A and D are contained in butter and are missing in pure margarine. The addition of these vitamins compensates for this disadvantage.

The values ​​for the polyunsaturated fatty acids varied greatly with margarine. At a high level, the proportion of more valuable monounsaturated fatty acids is lower.

Slimming with margarine

Vollfettmargarine is no better for losing weight than butter. Both contain at least 80 percent fat. Whether the fat comes from animals or plants does not affect the calorific value. 80 grams of fat always deliver 720 kilocalories. Semi-fatty margarine can save calories. But it is important that it is not twice as thick on the bread. From a health point of view speaks little against the butter. It is easily digestible and when used sparingly, the higher content of saturated fat and cholesterol, in a healthy person, does not matter. A problem with fat metabolism occurs only when the butter is abundantly used and the food additionally contains many fatty foods such as cheese, sausage, and cream sauces. With an already increased blood fat value, a change to margarine may be useful.

The nutritional benefits of margarine are mainly due to the oils used in its manufacture. Mostly sunflower, rapeseed, soy or corn germ oil. They contain monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.


Reform margarine:

Reform margarine must not contain hydrogenated fats. The transesterification to harden oils is prohibited. Nevertheless, to achieve a strike resistance solid vegetable fats such as coconut or palm fat are processed. Therefore, reformed margarine has a higher saturated fat content.

Diet margarine

Diet margarine may only be made from vegetable fats and oils. If the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids is at least 50 percent, a hypotensive effect may be noted.

Household margarine/table margarine

Household margarine or table margarine often contain a mixture of vegetable and animal fats. Due to the lower content of unsaturated fatty acids, this margarine also tolerates higher temperatures and is therefore suitable for baking and cooking.

Butter contains large amounts of saturated fat and cholesterol but no trans fat.

Butter is available in 3 commercial classes:

  • German brand butter (Austria: Teebutter)

German brand butter must be made from cream or cream.

  • Dairy butter (Austria: Tafelbutter)

Dairy butter may also consist of milk and whey cream.

  • Cook butter: Only for industrial processing, not available in food retail.

Butter must be at least 82% milk fat.

Halbfettbutter: Semi-fat butter contains only 39 to 41 percent milk fat. Often, gelatin is used to bind the water.

Mixed products: For mixed products butter is mixed with vegetable oils. This makes the butter more spreadable and reduces the proportion of saturated fatty acids in favor of the unsaturated ones.

After the sport one likes to refresh oneself with a soft drink. Not a good idea, as a New York study showed, because the drinks have been proven to damage the kidneys and lead to prolonged dehydration.

Soft drinks bad for the kidneys

Soft drinks are far from healthy. Often they contain caffeine, flavors as well as sugar, fructose-glucose syrup or sweeteners. Meanwhile, they are co-responsible for the worldwide rising numbers of overweight and diabetics.

Researchers from New York University at Buffalo showed in January 2019 that sweet drinks can also affect kidney health when taken during or after exercise. The study appeared in the American Journal of Physiology.


Soft drinks dehydrate

Previous studies from the 1990s have already shown that exercise – when practiced at high temperatures in summer – increases those blood levels that normally only increase when the kidneys have a problem.

At the same time there were studies (eg from July 2016) in which rats showed that soft drinks with a high fructose content increase the risk of kidney damage if the animals were very thirsty, ie already dehydrated.

The New York researchers now linked these two theses in their study. They wanted to find out how soft drinks – compared to water – changed the renal values ​​of dehydrated athletes during summer training.

Study: How do soft drinks affect sports?

The participants were 12 healthy and athletic adults with a median age of 24 years. They completed a 30-minute treadmill exercise and then did exercises that simulated physical work in agriculture for 15 minutes.

After a 45-minute workout, participants rested for 15 minutes and either received a popular caffeinated and flavored high fructose soft drink or water during that time. All in all, they repeated this one-hour procedure four times, so the participants exercised four times for 45 minutes each and then rested for 15 minutes each. At break there was always the corresponding drink.

A week later the same event took place again, but this time the groups were exchanged. Those athletes who had previously received the soft drink now drank water and vice versa.

Kidney values ​​worsen after soft drink consumption

On the training days, of course, blood samples were taken regularly – in each case before the training, immediately thereafter and also 24 hours later. The creatinine levels and the glomerular filtration rate were tested – both are markers that can detect kidney damage. Heart rate, body temperature, body weight and blood pressure were also checked.

As expected, both kidney-relevant blood levels in the soft drink groups increased. In addition, soft drink users were slightly dehydrated and had higher levels of vasopressin. Vasopression is a hormone that increases blood pressure while ensuring that the body releases as little water as possible from the urine, so that increased vasopressin levels also point to dehydration.

Never drink soft drinks while doing sports or doing physical work!

So, if you think after the summer training that you can supply yourself with soft drinks with liquid, you were wrong. Soft drinks do not rehydrate completely, on the contrary, they leave the body in a dehydrated state.

Of course, these results are not only for athletes who train in the heat, but also for people who (have to) do physical work at high temperatures.

Basically, you should quench your thirst – no matter which group of people you choose – with water. However, especially in the summer or when you sweat a lot, practice a lot or even compete and sometimes drink a lot of water, you should avoid low-mineral water and enrich the water instead with minerals or some sea or rock salt. Occasionally coconut water can also be used as a high quality isotonic thirst quencher.

For the time being it is certain that the table you have a bowl of natural honey can only be made if the bee product is produced on its own apiary. Otherwise, even those who are busy in beekeeping and selling honey on an industrial scale are not always honest with buyers and often dilute the product with various surrogates, close to the taste for natural honeybees, to increase profits. In addition, beekeepers feed the bees with sugar syrup for the same purpose, adversely affecting the beneficial properties of the product and significantly reducing its value. How can a simple resident distinguish natural honey from artificial honey and avoid buying a bad product? Let’s look at how the natural honey should be in color, taste, and texture to easily distinguish it from a counterfeit.

How do I differentiate the natural honey from the fake?

The first thing you need to keep in mind when buying honey is its density and density. The natural product flows slowly from the spoon, snakes in the glass, forming a film that spreads not immediately, but gradually. If you try to spin a spoon during the flow of honey, the product winds around it rather than continuing to drain. Of course, the taste and smell of the bee product are not of minor importance. The latter should be soft, pleasant, flowery and not caramel, be sharp, intrusive or not at all.

If you like the taste of natural bee honey then you should feel a slight bitterness, a slight bitterness, and you should definitely feel a slight sore throat.

Be sure to pay attention to the color of natural floral honey. It can range from light brown and yellow to dark brown, but not overly light. If you have a transparent light in front of you, then the bees are beyond all doubt just fed sugar syrup. Such a product will not hurt, but it will not be useful.

If the organoleptic method is to determine the authenticity of natural honey you do not get, or you still doubt the quality of the product you have purchased, then you can resort to more sophisticated tests.


How to determine natural honey at home?

The admixture in the honey of moisture or sugar syrup may be identified with a special chemical pencil. In that case, he will change the color. If you do not have one, you can use the usual blotting paper and drop one drop of the product. If honey is natural and quality, it will not get wet.

Another sure way to ensure the authenticity of honey It is necessary to put a little honey on a sheet of plain paper and set it on fire. Natural honey does not burn and does not change color, only paper will burn in this case, and honey stays. If the adulterer is in front of you, it will darken, it will smoke or you will smell the scorched sugar.

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