Biochemical blood test – a method of blood testing, often used in therapy, rheumatology, gastroenterology and other fields of medicine. It is this laboratory analysis that most accurately reflects the health of systems and organs.

Glucose in the blood biochemistry

About a day after you have donated blood, get the results of biochemistry. They indicate the amount of the contents of various substances. It is quite difficult for a person without medical education to independently understand the results of the analysis. But today the interpretation of the analysis of blood biochemistry is always attached in the medical institutions.

biochemistry-of-the-blood-transcript

The sugar content in the blood is the index of carbohydrate metabolism. In the norm of glucose should not be more than 5.5 mmol/l and not less than 3.5 mmol/l. A steady increase in this indicator is most commonly observed when:

  • Cushing’s syndrome;
  • Diabetes;
  • permanent excessive physical exertion;
  • hyperthyroidism;
  • pheochromocytoma;
  • Diseases of the endocrine glands.

If you have a lower glucose level The general biochemistry of the blood, the decoding will indicate that you have an insulin overdose, a deficiency in the function of the endocrine glands or severe poisoning that is accompanied by liver damage.

Pigments in the biochemistry of the blood

In deciphering the blood test for biochemistry the amount of pigments – bilirubin direct and bilirubin total – is given. The standard of total bilirubin is 5-20 μmol/l. A strong change in this indicator is characteristic of various liver diseases (for example, hepatitis and cirrhosis), mechanical jaundice, poisoning, liver cancer, cholelithiasis, and vitamin B12 deficiency.

The norm of direct bilirubin is 0-3.4 μmol/l. If you have blood biochemistry and this indicator is higher, the decryption may indicate that you have the following:

  • Syphilis;
  • toxic or acute viral hepatitis;
  • cholecystitis;
  • infectious liver disease; 

Fats in biochemical blood analysis

If there is a violation of lipid metabolism in the blood, the content of lipids and/or their fractions (cholesterol esters and triglycerides) is increased. The interpretation of these indicators in the results of blood biochemistry assays is very important as they are very important for a correct assessment of the functional ability of the kidney and liver in a variety of diseases. Normally it should be:

  • Total cholesterol – 3.0-6.0 mmol/l;
  • Triglycerides 0.40-2.70 mmol/l (depending on age).

Water and mineral salts in blood biochemistry

There are several inorganic substances: potassium, folic acid, iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine. Injuries of water-mineral metabolism of any kind are very commonly observed in severe and mild forms of diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis and heart problems.

Normally, the potassium level should be within 3.5-5.5 mmol/l. If there is an increase in its concentration, then the biochemistry of blood for women and men declares that this is hyperkalemia. This condition is characteristic of hemolysis, acute renal failure, dehydration, and adrenal insufficiency. A strong decrease in potassium content means Hypokalemia. This condition is a sign of impaired renal function, cystic fibrosis, an excess of hormones in the adrenal cortex.

In the analysis of blood biochemistry, the sodium standard is 136-145 mmol/l. An increase in this indicator usually indicates a violation of the function of the adrenal cortex or the pathology of the hypothalamus.

Normally chlorine in the blood ranges from 98-107 mmol/l. If the indicators are larger, the person may have dehydration, salicylate poisoning or adrenocortical dysfunction. However, the decrease in chloride content is observed with vomiting, a significant increase in fluid volume, and excessive sweating.

The figures published by the IDF (International Diabetes Federation) at the end of 2006 speak for themselves: instead of the previously estimated 30 million, 246 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes.

Scientists forecast a diabetic share of 12 percent for Germany by the year 2010. The question is, who should and can still pay for it? Already today, the treatment and follow-up cost amount to up to 27 billion euros, according to the German Diabetic Confederation.

Almost all of us could easily prevent this “widespread disease”: weight reduction, sufficient physical activity, healthy food rich in vital substances with a low glycemic index – preferably vegetarian. In addition, a good micronutrient supply has a very high priority: both in prevention and in existing insulin resistance and even more so in diagnosed diabetes mellitus type-2.

Micronutrient-Therapy-For-Type-2-Diabetes-Mellitus

 

Diabetes mellitus type-2 has numerous threatening consequences, which can be prevented or at least mitigated with sufficient availability of micronutrients. In addition, diabetics have found a greater need for micronutrients and simultaneously lower blood levels.

In diabetics, the formation of free radicals is particularly pronounced. This is also evident in the sequelae, which can take a very dramatic course:

Nervous dysfunction, kidney disease, visual disturbances (cataracts) are not uncommon; at worst, blindness or amputations of the limbs may occur. Pathological changes in the blood vessels (micro- and macroangiopathy) can be the trigger for stroke and heart attack.

A preventive and good supply of antioxidant agents such as vitamin C, E, selenium, zinc, cysteine, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, and other vital substances can counteract these secondary diseases.

Not only do micronutrients have the function of protecting against free radicals, they also help the diabetic to keep his blood vessels elastic, intact, and functional. Here is the amino acid arginine to mention. It causes dilation of the blood vessels and has a hypotensive effect.

Bringing blood sugar regulation back into balance is the key to existing insulin resistance. Orthomolecular medicine can be an important element in achieving this goal: Chromium and biotin are able to positively influence glucose metabolism; also deficiencies of zinc, copper, and manganese are associated with glucose intolerance.

In summary, orthomolecular medicine in diabetes mellitus is a useful therapeutic approach and can make a significant contribution to relieving the symptoms. The sooner, the better and more effective.

Hormones are substances that are produced by endocrine glands (thyroid, pancreas, gonads, pituitary, etc.) and participate in all processes in the body. These bioactive compounds determine the processes of growth, development, reproduction, metabolism, the appearance of a person, their character and their behavior depend on them.

The produced hormones go into the blood, where they are in certain concentrations and equilibrium with each other. Anomalies affect health and can lead to the defeat of various organs and systems. And it’s important not just the concentration of a hormone, but also its relationship to other types of hormones.

When is the blood test prescribed for hormones?

The blood test to determine the level of certain hormones and the hormonal background as a whole can be prescribed by almost any specialist:

  • Endocrinologist;
  • gynecologist;
  • A neuropathologist;
  • gastroenterologist;
  • Oncologist, etc.

This procedure allows you to identify a large number of different pathologies, even in the early stages prior to the manifestation of clinical signs.

The reason for this analysis may be suspected dysfunction of the glands of internal secretion or an increase in the size of the glands (eg, after ultrasound). Frequently check the number of hormones required if:

  • Acne;
  • Baldness;
  • increase in weight

A repeat study can be assigned to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.

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Preparing for the analysis of blood for hormones

To obtain high quality and reliable results should follow the recommendations set forth below for the analysis of blood for all hormones (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), sex, adrenals, thyroid, etc.):

  1. Two weeks prior to the study, all medications should be discontinued (except those whose receipt was agreed with the physician prior to analysis).
  2. Three days before the test you should stop using alcohol.
  3. 3-5 days before analysis, it is best to eat fatty, spicy and fried foods.
  4. 3 days before the analysis you have to give up playing sports and not allow a heavy physical effort.
  5. You can not smoke on the day of the study.
  6. Since the blood donation is done on an empty stomach for analysis, you should not eat 12 hours before the procedure (sometimes only clean water without gas is allowed).
  7. Immediately before the procedure, you should rest within 10-15 minutes, so as not to worry.

As the hormone level in women of the menstrual cycle, it is better to take the test for 5-7 days after the onset of menstruation. If you are planning to analyze the level of the hormone progesterone, it should be done on the 19-21 day of the cycle. Before performing a blood test for sex hormones, do not recommend gynecological examination, palpation of the mammary glands.

Decrypt the blood test for hormones

Decrypting the blood test for hormones can only be done by a qualified specialist who bases each patient on an individual approach, taking into account the characteristics of the organism, existing diseases, current therapy, and many other factors. It should be noted that the standards for the analysis of blood for hormones in different laboratories are different. This is due to the fact that different methods, equipment, reagents, holding time etc. can be used in the study. Therefore, if you need to conduct repeated analyzes, you should contact the same institution as you did for the first time, and in deciphering you should follow the standards used.

The amount of energy a person spends during the day depends on the processes of glucose oxidation in the body. The normal adult content varies between 3.2 and 5.5 mmol/l. Highly elevated blood glucose levels indicate serious disturbances in metabolic processes, possible onset of development of endocrine diseases, pathologies of the digestive system.

The causes of permanently and temporarily elevated blood glucose levels

The main factor causes an increase in sugar concentration in the body – malnutrition. Excessive consumption of carbohydrates, presence in the products of harmful chemical additives and addiction to “heavy” foods lead to the development of comorbidities:

  • Diabetes mellitus;
  • acute and chronic pancreatitis;
  • Pathology of the kidneys, liver;
  • Thyroid disease;
  • Disorders of the endocrine system.

Also, a temporary increase in glucose concentration can trigger certain medications, stress, alcohol and other toxic substances.

 

increased-glucose-in-the-blood

Signs of high blood sugar levels

Characteristic symptoms of the described condition:

  • Dry mouth;
  • frequent and abundant urination;
  • Worsening the ability of the skin to heal;
  • frequent headache;
  • Reduction of visual acuity;
  • Itching;
  • Increased fatigue;
  • Presence of boils, purulent pimples;
  • insufficient activity of the immune system

If at least 1-2 of these symptoms appear, you should see a doctor.

What to do if blood sugar is increased?

General recommendations for high sugar levels are the proper organization of a diet with restriction of carbohydrate consumption, refusal of bad habits, time allocation for physical activity.

If it has been discovered diseases, accompanied by an increase in the amount of glucose in the blood, you should treat them.

Thyroid – an indispensable organ of the endocrine system that produces substances that are responsible for many important processes. That is, it is responsible for the activity of the brain, heart activity, muscle tone, metabolic processes. Therefore, any thyroid problems will sooner or later be reflected in other organs and systems.

It is noted that thyroid disease develops much more often in women than in the stronger sex, and one of the common pathologies is the increase in this organ. Often, this is due to a lack of iodine intake, poor environmental conditions, constant stress, chronic infectious diseases, bad habits. We will find out what are the symptoms of diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland and the methods of treatment for this diagnosis.

Symptoms of an increase in the thyroid gland

Symptoms of an increase in the thyroid and its hormones are not immediately apparent and depend on the stage of pathology. It is possible to observe changes only with palpation examination, ultrasound or X-ray examination. There are 5 stages of enlargement of the thyroid with such signs:

  1. In the first phase, when the palpation is increased, the gland is not diagnosed, but during swallowing of saliva and food, the patient may feel some discomfort.
  2. In the second stage, the enlarged lobes of the gland are already examined, and their increased isthmus is noticeable.
  3. The third stage is characterized by a visually appreciable size of the organ, which thickened the neck, changing its contours.
  4. The thyroid with the rise in the fourth degree starts not only to move forward, but also to the sides. Swallowing functions are considerably hampered.
  5. The hardest stage leads to disfigurement. The trachea and esophagus are traumatized, hindering the swallowing and breathing processes, the voice changes, and the patient feels considerable pain and discomfort.

Thyroid-Enlargement-Symptoms And-Treatment

The increase in the thyroid can be substantiated by such manifestations as follows:

  • Decrease or weight gain without obvious reasons;
  • Palpitations;
  • Fatigue, tiredness;
  • Irritability;
  • Problems with sleep;
  • Loss and dullness of the hair;
  • Sweat;
  • Irregular menstruation;
  • visual impairment;
  • Trembling of the hands;
  • inexplicable cough;
  • Stool diseases etc.

Treatment with an increase in the thyroid gland

To properly treat this pathology, the necessary diagnostic measures must first be performed, including:

  • a blood test for hormones;
  • Ultrasound;
  • Computer-assisted axial tomography
  • Core scans, etc.

The treatment methods depend on the reasons for the increase in thyroid gland, stages of the pathological process, comorbidities. It is easy to guess that the most easily treatable enlargement of the thyroid gland is 1 degree, so it is very important to early detection of the pathology. In neglected cases usually fail without surgical treatment.

In most cases, substitution therapy – taking hormone preparations. Also drugs that inhibit the functioning of the gland can recommend a special diet. One of the modern methods of treatment is radioiodine therapy – the use of radioactive iodine preparations to destroy glandular tissue.

Treatment of thyroid enlargement by FolkMittel can be performed only after diagnosis and with the permission of the doctor. The most effective folk method for the treatment of thyroid disease is the use of an alcohol tincture of cinquefoil white.

We know that the food we eat can have an effect on our cholesterol level, but did you know that alcohol can also play a role? It is generally suggested that a glass of red wine per day can actually benefit cholesterol and heart health, but there are still many side effects associated with alcohol consumption.

Numerous studies have suggested that consuming alcohol, preferably red wine, in moderation can help promote heart health and even longevity. On the other hand, excessive alcohol consumption can actually increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, increase blood pressure, contribute to obesity and increase blood triglycerides.

Heavy alcohol consumption was also associated with liver disease, heart weakened muscles and even congestive heart failure. The American Heart Association does not recommend adding alcohol to your daily diet to support a healthy heart. Instead, they recommend eating well, maintaining a healthy weight and exercising regularly.

If you are already in a state of health, you should always discuss with your doctor if the alcohol intake is really safe for you. Alcohol can aggravate certain health conditions and can lead to negative side effects when dealing with medication.

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Cholesterol And Alcohol Link

Your diet can definitely raise or lower your cholesterol level. Even if you think you are playing it safe because there is no cholesterol in alcohol, there are other ways in which alcohol can negatively affect your heart rate. For example, beer contains carbohydrates and alcohol that can increase your triglyceride count. Increased triglyceride levels can contribute to heart disease.

Beer also contains plant sterols that bind to cholesterol and transport it out of the body. That may sound promising, but researchers have found that beer does not have enough of plant sterols that significantly affect cholesterol levels.

Alcoholic spirits, such as whiskey and vodka, also contain no cholesterol, but when These drinks, which are served in premixed cocktails, contain high levels of sugar, which can affect cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

 

How Much Alcohol Should You Drink?

Moderate drinking is defined as one drink per day for men and women two drinks per day for men. Studies that have shown the benefits of moderate drinking for cholesterol and heart health use this definition. Drinking more than the recommended amount has been associated with adverse health effects.

It really is hard to say what to drink and how much to drink In relation to heart health and cholesterol. Generally, if you want to improve your heart rates, it is best to stick with healthy lifestyle choices. Since alcohol can affect many different aspects of your health, it is probably safer to avoid it to reduce other related complications such as liver disease. Not to say that you can not enjoy the occasional drink, but making alcohol part of your daily diet may not be worth it.

High triglyceride levels can increase the risk of heart disease. Triglycerides are the fat in our blood and work to energize the body. Extra triglycerides are stored for a future date, if needed. Numerous studies suggest that high triglyceride levels increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglycerides form from the end product of digestion and come from the fat and carbohydrates we consume into energy for the body. Triglyceride levels are tested with a lipid panel, which is a similar test to how the cholesterol level is checked.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that high triglyceride levels pose a problem for nearly one-third of Americans. An increase in triglyceride levels has been observed over the last 30 years and yet only 1.3 percent of those with high levels take medication to lower it. This shows that more attention must be given to triglycerides, as high levels can have serious consequences and more should be done to reduce them, especially for those at high risk for heart disease.

Triglycerides-In-Higher-Concentrations-risk-of-heart-disease

Previous Study Shows Triglycerides Role In Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary artery disease is a common form of heart disease, and high levels of triglycerides can help. Studies by the Broad Institute show that reducing triglycerides can be an effective way to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

Sekar Kathiresan, study leader, said, “The key question about these biomarkers over the years Who caused coronary artery disease and which are just an expression of the disease process? The reason this question is important is not the prediction, because biomarkers are useful to predict diseases, whether they are causal or not, the reason why we want to distinguish between these factors is the treatment, we really just want to attack the causes of the disease. ”

LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) has been a well-known factor in heart disease and has been shown to reduce a person’s risk of developing heart disease by supporting statins. HDL, on the other hand, has always been thought of as a factor in reducing heart disease, but no link was found on how HDL can help improve CAD.

The research team has shown 185 variations in genetic coding to be associated with blood lipid traits. Single nucleotide polymorphisms or “SNPs” are inherited from one or both parents.

The researchers then investigated whether SNPs affected the LDL, HDL, triglyceride levels and CAD risk relationship between triglyceride levels and CAD similar to that of LDL and CAD. LDL cholesterol forms plaque along the arterial walls and so the researchers believe triglycerides can work similarly by depositing fat along the arteries.

Kathiresan concluded: “Clinically speaking, one of the ways to prevent a first heart attack or reduce the risk of a second heart attack in someone who already has heart disease to treat patients with drugs that lower levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Some drugs targeting triglycerides are already being tested, and now it’s time to find the right triglyceride lowering mechanism that effectively reduces the risk of disease. ”

 

Guidelines For Triglyceride Levels

The National Cholesterol Education Program has established guidelines for normal triglyceride levels as follows:

Normal triglyceride levels: below 150 mg/dl

  • Borderline high triglyceride ranges : 150 – 199 mg/dl
  • High triglyceride ranges: 200 – 499 mg/dl
  • Very high triglyceride ranges: 500 mg/dl or higher
  • Although cholesterol and fat are vital to the body, it is important to maintain a normal level, as high levels increase the risk of serious health problems, especially of the heart.

Diet cholesterol and triglycerides come from the consumption of red meat and dairy products. When consumed these foods are absorbed through the intestine and distributed through the bloodstream to reach the liver where they are processed. Thus, the liver can develop a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet makes the liver greasy.

It is the job of the liver to deliver up to 75 percent of cholesterol and triglycerides to the body of cholesterol found in the body.

 

Difference Between Triglycerides And Cholesterol

Although triglycerides and cholesterol are similar in the sense that they are fatty species, they have differences. A single significant difference between cholesterol and triglycerides is the fact that cholesterol is used to create cells and particular hormones in which triglycerides store unused calories and energize the human body.

Another difference is that cholesterol is strongly influenced by the fat that is consumed by diet where triglycerides are affected by total calories. Excess calories are converted to triglycerides and stored when the body needs energy. Things like alcohol and sugary foods can have a bigger impact on the triglycerides.

 

Tips For Lowering Triglycerides And Increasing Hdl Cholesterol Levels

High LDL cholesterol and triglycerides can trigger serious health concerns and so it is important to raise HDL and lower triglyceride levels to maintain good health. Here are some tips to increase HDL levels and lower triglycerides.

Lose weight

  • Cutting Sugar – The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends only five percent of your daily calories come from added sugar
  • Increase your fiber intake
  • Border Fructose – Fructose is a type of sugar that can contribute to high triglyceride levels
  • A Moderately Low-Fat Diet – A moderately low-fat diet has proven to be effective in lowering triglyceride levels as opposed to a strict low-fat diet.
  • Pay attention to the fat you eat – there are good fats and bad fats. Avoid saturated and trans-fat fats and consume more monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids such as
  • Increase your fish consumption – try sardines and salmon
  • exercise
  • Restrict alcohol
  • If necessary, take triglyceride-lowering medication and recommended by your doctor
  • Quit smoking
  • Control diabetes if you have it

By following these tips and working closely with your doctor, you can lower your triglyceride levels and protect your heart.

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