Carbohydrates are the most important nutrients in humans besides fats and proteins. They are formed from the substances carbon, water, and oxygen, through photosynthesis, in the plants using solar energy and chlorophyll.

Carbohydrates can be divided into:

  • Simple sugars (monosaccharides):
  • Glucose, fructose, galactose
  • (Low molecular weight)
  • Double sugar (disaccharides):
  • Sucrose, lactose, maltose
  • (Low molecular weight)
  • Multiple sugars (polysaccharides):
  • Starch, glycogen, cellulose
  • (High molecular weight)

The various carbohydrates of food are converted into glucose in the body. From glucose, cells can also synthesize other sugars for specific tasks. The carbons are in the body in a constant assembly and disassembly.

Carbohydrates, The Most Important Nutrients

Tasks of carbohydrates in the body:

  • Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the organism. 1 g of carbs provides 4.2 kcal of energy. Almost all cells use glucose as an energy source. The brain cells and the erythrocytes (red blood cells) rely solely on glucose as an energy source. With a surplus of energy from carbohydrates, the surplus is converted into fat and stored in the body. When storing carbohydrates as body fat, about 30% of the energy is lost.
  • Another important function of carbohydrates is that of a reserve substance. In the form of the body’s own glycogen, carbohydrates represent readily available reserve energy. A person weighing 70 kg has a glycogen reserve of about 350 – 400 g, which corresponds to about 1,500 kcal. The glycogen supply is about 1/3 stored in the liver and about 2/3 in the muscles.
  • The fiber is also carbohydrates. It used to be thought that they were not usable by the human body because human digestive juices contain no enzymes that can break these compounds. It has been overlooked that some of the dietary fiber is fermented by enzymes of the microorganisms of the large intestine. In addition to gases, short-chain fatty acids, which can be utilized by humans, are also produced. The energy gain from dietary fiber is negligible due to the small amounts supplied. The intake recommendation of the DGE of 30 g fiber per day is often not reached.

Feed recommendation for carbohydrates:

Since carbohydrates and fats can be widely represented as energy suppliers, there are no exact intake recommendations. For a normal fat metabolism daily 60 – 100 g carbohydrates are necessary. If too little energy is supplied in the form of carbohydrates and fats, protein is broken down instead of the energy carrier. One speaks therefore of the protein-saving effect of the carbohydrates.

The DGE recommends covering at least 50% of the energy needs of carbohydrates.

Starchy, high molecular weight carbohydrates should be preferred. Consumption of low molecular weight carbohydrates should be reduced.

Carbohydrates in food:

1.) Simple sugars (monosaccharides)

Glucose (glucose)

  • fruit
  • vegetables

Fructose (fructose)

  • fruit
  • honey

Galactose (mucus sugar)

  • milk

2.) Double sugar (disaccharides)

Sucrose (beet and cane sugar)

  • sugar beet
  • sugarcane
  • Table sugar, candy

Lactose (milk sugar)

  • milk
  • Dairy products

Maltose (malt sugar)

  • barley
  • beer
  • malt extract

3.) Multiple sugars (polysaccharides)

Strength

  • Grain
  • potatoes
  • legumes

glycogen

  • liver
  • muscles

cellulose

  • all plants

For many, avocados are still exceptional, although it can be found in every market or specialty store. But its excellent taste and numerous useful properties are worth every bit of attention and if you are not yet familiar with the taste of this wonderful fruit and do not know how to choose it correctly, we recommend that you read the information below and fill in the gap.

How do I choose the right avocado?

On the shelves, you can meet avocado Different varieties. Mostly these are green fruits, with smooth or narrow skin. The latter is preferable for purchase and consumption because they have a smaller bone size and the bark of the ripe fruit can be easily cleaned by beating them with a slightly sharp knife without touching the meat.

Smooth fruits of the avocado have a lighter color, the bone is larger and takes up more volume, and the shell is cleared only with the help of a knife along with a portion of the inner pulp. The taste of such an avocado is in no way worse, which surpasses them only in terms of benefits and in more pure pulp.

how-to-choose-a-ripe-avocado

How to choose the good fruit in the store avocado?

When choosing an avocado, at the first turn, we pay attention to the softness of the fetus. If you squeeze it, the meat should bend slightly and immediately return to its original appearance. If the dent remains, then it is not worth buying such an avocado – most likely it is already overripe and is more likely to rot inside.

If the avocado is too hard you can buy it, but in this case, it will be necessary for you to leave your home in room conditions in a paper bag for two to five days to allow the fruit to ripen.

and also pay attention to the color of the fruit. The darker it is, the softer the meat is and the avocado will be ripe. In a well-seasoned avocado, when you shave it, you can hear a beating bone inside. If there is no knock – the avocado is still green and it will take time to ripen.

How to choose avocado for salad?

If you prepare an avocado for a salad, then you should stop the selection on a specimen with still cracking bone, but a little soft structure, which can be judged correctly when pressing on the skin. There should be little pressure and spring immediately. If you choose a fruit that is too ripe, its pulp is oily and soft. This avocado can be used to make sauces, smoothies, desserts, or just eat so, smeared on a slice of toast or bread. For a salad, the pulp should be slightly denser.